Herders versus farmers: ‘Security measures alone won’t solve crisis’
Clear Principles, Policies Crucial To Douse Tension, Says Tinubu
• Charts bold, Strategic Steps
The national leader of All Progressives Congress (APC), Asiwaju Bola Tinubu, has urged for caution in the handling of the explosive issue of herders versus farmers conflict.
Tinubu, a former Lagos State governor, maintained that as Nigerians, “we must move in unison, but decisively to end the spiral of death and destruction,” which ensue from the crisis.
The APC strongman’s position, which is about his first public intervention on the raging matter, was made known in a statement he personally signed and made available to The Guardian.
Tracing the root of the imbroglio, Tinubu noted that although there have been sporadic disputes in the past, this one is more severe, adding: “The reasons for the greater violence of this current dispute are myriad.”
“Economic hardship and its resultant dislocation, proliferation of weapons, generalized increase in criminality, and weakening of social institutions all play a role.
“Desertification, increased severity and length of the dry season, diminution of water resources, impairment of land fertility and population growth also contributes in no small measure. Thus, any durable solution must get at most, if not all, of these issues,” he asserted.
The former Lagos State governor pointed out that just as farmers have a right to farm their land unmolested, herders have a right to raise their livestock without undue interference.
“However,” he added, “when conflict between these groups arises to such an extent, we must set forth clear principles and policies to remove the tension, in order to allow both to proceed toward their stated goals and to live in harmony and according to their respective rights.”
On whether there is an end in sight to the ugly development, Tinubu stated: “Only when the violence and the illogic of it are halted can logic and reason prevail.
“Until the violence is rolled back, we cannot resolve the deep problems that underlie this conflict. We will neither be able to uplift the farmer from his impoverished toil nor move the herder toward the historic transformation, which he must make.”
He maintained that as vital as security is to the resolution of this matter, “we must realize security measures alone will not suffice. Enhanced security may be the necessary first step, but it cannot be the only step.
“Nor do we resolve this by hitching ourselves to emotional, one-dimensional answers. More to the point, those who cast this as exclusively a matter of ethnic confrontation are mistaken.”
The APC leader stressed, “This is no time for reckless chauvinism of any kind, on either side of this dispute. This matter is not ethnic in factual origin or actual causation although in the minds and hearts of too many it has become ethnic in recrimination and impulsive action.”
On the way out of the seeming culdesac, Tinubu outlined two fundamental realities, remarking that although he and others have previously mentioned one of them as part of the solution, the other is hardly discussed.
He observed that while the situation of the herder is becoming untenable, their nomadic ways fall increasingly in conflict with the dictates of modern society, noting that we can never condone or accept violence as a valid response to any hardship.
He, however, pleaded that all must recognize and understand the sense of dislocation caused by the sudden passing of such a longstanding social institution.
What is happening has been terrible, but it is not due to any intrinsic evil in either the herder or the farmer,” he declared, noting that the calamity now being faced is borne of situational exigencies.
His words: “It is but the tragic outcome when often desperate, alienated people are left too long unattended and when their understanding of the modern socio-economic and environmental forces affecting the very terms of their existence is incomplete.
“An ethnically fuelled response will be to vociferously defend the nomadic way believing this tack will somehow protect the herder and cast the speaker as an ethnic champion.
“However, careless words cannot shield the herder from relentless reality. Such talk will only delude him into believing that he can somehow escape the inevitable. We do both herder and farmer grave injustice by allowing the herder to continue as he is – fighting a losing battle against modernity and climate change. In that fight, desperation causes him to flail and fight the farmer, who too is a victim of these impersonal forces.”
He said both innocent and law-abiding farmer and herder need to be recompensed for the losses they have suffered, insisting that both need further assistance to break the current cycle of violence and poverty.
“In short, the continued progressive reform of many of our rural socio-economic relationships is called for. Based on these strategic observations, I recommend the Federal Government convene a meeting of state governors, senior security officials, herder and farmer representatives, along with traditional rulers and religious leaders.
“The purpose of this meeting would be to hammer out a set of working principles to resolve the crisis. After this meeting, governors of each state should convene follow-up meetings in their states to refine and add flesh to the universal principles by adjusting them to the particular circumstances of their states.
In addition to religious and traditional leaders and local farmer and herder representatives, these meetings shall include the state’s best security minds along with experts in agriculture (livestock and farming), land use and water management to draw specific plans for their states.”
The former Lagos State governor submitted that in order to accomplish the state goal, it would be accompanied with a wise policy, which must include the following elements:
*Maintain reasonable and effective law enforcement presence in affected areas. The proposed reform of the Nigerian law enforcement apparatus towards state and community policing can help in this regard. The legislative and administrative measures required to make this a reality should be expedited. In addition to alleviating the present farmer-herder crisis, this reform will also bolster efforts against the banditry, kidnapping and robbery plaguing communities across the country. Governments need to employ new technology and equipment to enhance the information gathering/surveillance and response capabilities of law enforcement.
*Help the herders’ transition to more sedentary but more profitable methods of cattle-rearing. Unoccupied public land can be fenced into grazing areas or ranches and leased to herders on a very low-cost, nominal basis. The leasing is not intended to penalize herders.
Rather, the nominal fee is intended to ensure the herders are invested in the project and incentivized (by reason of their investment) to use the land provided. This aspect will also mitigate any resentment over herders being given land for free. Government, in turn, being a responsible lessor, must help with supplemental feed and water in these areas. This will enable herders to better maintain and care for their livestock thus enhancing their incomes. Herders can augment income by becoming suppliers to the leather goods industry. Additionally, herders can also develop a more symbiotic relationship with farmers by, for example, trading animal compost to the farmer in exchange for animal feed.
*Assist farmers increase productivity by supporting or providing subvention for their acquisition of fertilizer, equipment and machinery and, also, by establishing commodity boards to guarantee minimum prices for important crops. In the medium to long term, resources must be dedicated to establishing better irrigation and water catchment systems to further improve farm productivity and mitigate the dire impact of flood and drought cycles brought about by extreme climatic conditions.
*Establish a permanent panel in each state as a forum for farmers, herders, security officials and senior state officials to discuss their concerns, mitigate contention and identify trouble and douse it before it erupts.
He noted that the herder-farmer dispute has not only taken on acute and violent dimensions, but has cost too many innocent lives while destroying the property and livelihoods of many others.
“It has also aggravated ethnic sentiment and political tension. Despite the efforts of some of those in positions of high responsibility and public trust, the crisis has not significantly abated.
“Sadly, others who should know better have incited matters by tossing about hate-tainted statements that fall dangerously short of the leadership these people claim to provide. We all must get hold of our better selves to treat this matter with the sobriety it requires,” he declared.
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