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Solid minerals in Nigeria: An overview (1)

By Kayode Adeoye
02 March 2016   |   12:30 am
A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic, representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic and has an ordered atomic structure.

Solid minerals

A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic, representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic and has an ordered atomic structure. The Nigerian Extractive Industry and Transparency Initiative, NEITI report suggests that there are over 30 different kinds of solid minerals and precious metals (Sapphire, Aquamarine, Topaz etc.) buried in Nigerian soil waiting to be exploited.

A well mined and well processed solid mineral and gemstones attracts more money than a roughly or badly mined/processed one. A state by state account of the solid mineral deposit in Nigeria as well as their uses is the focus of the column for the week.

ABIA: Clay and Coal.
ADAMAWA: Coal, Gypsum, Magnetite and Clay.
ANAMBRA: Kaolin, Coal and Clay.
AKWA-IBOM: Kaolin and Clay.
BAUCHI: Kaolin, Rutile, Clay, Limestone, Columbite, Casseterite, Fluorite, Wolframite and Gemstones.
BENUE: Barite, Limestone and Clay.
BORNO: Bentonite and Clay.
CROSS-RIVER: Barite, Tantalite, Rutile, Limestone, Casseterite, Lead, Zinc, Columbite and Clay.
DELTA: Silica Sand and Clay.
EBONYI: Coal, Clay, Limestone, Fluorite, Lead, Silver and Zinc.
EDO: Coal, Gypsum, Clay, Limestone, Bitumen and Bentonite.
EKITI: Tantalite, Mica, Kaolin and Clay.
ENUGU: Coal, Clay and Iron Ore.
FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA: Feldspar, Gold, Lead, Zinc, Iron Ore, Marble and Clay.
GOMBE: Coal, Gypsum, Limestone and Clay.
IMO: Kaolin, Coal and Clay.
JIGAWA: Silica Sand and Clay.
KADUNA: Rutile, Talc, Feldspar, Gold, Clay, Columbite, Kyanite, Bismuth, Wolframite and Gemstones.
KANO: Coal, Feldspar, Silver, Casseterite, Wolframite and Clay.
KATSINA: Kaolin, Gold, Manganese and Clay.
KEBBI: Kaolin, Feldspar, Gold, Clay and Manganese.
KOGI: Tantalite, Coal, Mica, Talc, Feldspar, Clay, Bentonite, Iron Ore Limestone and Marble.
KWARA: Tantalite, Mica, Gold, Columbite, Clay, Casseterite, Marble and Gemstones.
LAGOS: Silica Sand, Bitumen and Clay.
NASSARAWA: Mica, Barite, Clay, Columbite, Casseterite, Iron Ore, Lithium, Wolframite, Marble and Gemstones.
NIGER: Talc, Gold, Clay, Lithium, Kyanite, Wolframite and Gemstones.
OGUN: Kaolin, Gypsum, Quartz, Limestone, Mica, Glass Sand, Feldspar, Clay, Bitumen and Phosphate.
ONDO: Kaolin, Silica Sand, Bitumen, Bentonite and Clay.
OSUN: Mica, Gold and Clay.
OYO: Mica, Marble, Clay and Gemstones.
PLATEAU: Kaolin, Coal, Rutile, Columbite, Clay, Casseterite, Fluorite, Lead, Molybdenum and Gemstones.
RIVERS: Kaolin and Clay.
SOKOTO: Limestone, Phosphate and Clay.
TARABA: Barite, Phosphate and Clay.
YOBE: Diatomite, Silica Sand, Gypsum and Clay.
ZAMFARA: Barite, Feldspar, Gold, Lead, Zinc, Clay, Iron Ore, Lithium, Manganese and Wolframite.

AGGREGATES Natural aggregates include sand, gravel and crushed stone. Aggregates are composed of rock fragments that may be used in their natural state or after mechanical processing such as crushing, washing or sizing. Recycled aggregates consists mainly of crushed concrete and crushed asphalt pavement.

BARIUM is an element derived primarily from the element, Barite and is used as an additive in oil-well drilling mud, paints, rubber, plastic and paper; production of barium chemicals and glass manufacturing.

BENTONITE is a type of clay used in medicine and as a mud additive in drilling.

BISMUTH is used in a number of very different applications. The majority is consumed in bismuth alloys and in pharmaceuticals and chemicals. The remainder is used in ceramics, paints, catalysts and a variety of minor applications. Bismuth metal is relatively inert and non-toxic. It has replaced toxic lead in many applications such as plumbing, bullets, birdshot, metal alloys and soldering. Bismuth compounds are used in stomach-upset medicines (hence the trademark name Pepto-Bismol), treatment of stomach ulcers, soothing creams and cosmetics.

BITUMEN Dense highly viscous, petroleum-based hydrocarbon that is found in deposits such as oil sands, or obtained as a residue in the distillation of crude oil. It is principally used in road construction.
CLAYS There are many different clay minerals that are used for industrial applications. Clays are used in the manufacturing of paper, refractories, rubber, ball clay, dinnerware and pottery, floor and wall tile, sanitary wear, fire clay, fire bricks, foundry sands, drilling mud, iron-ore pelletizing, absorbent and filtering materials and cosmetics.

CASSETERITE is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2 and the main ore of tin.

COAL Basically used in the generation of electricity, steel production and cement manufacturing as a liquid fuel, it is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

COLUMBITE Columbite and Tantalite are mostly found together in granite, pegmatites and placer deposits. It is an ore of niobium and tantalum used in forming alloys that are useful in nuclear, aerospace and gas turbine engineering.

DIATOMITE is a rock composed of the skeletons of diatoms, single-celled organisms with skeleton made of silica which are found in fresh or salt water. Diatomite is primarily used for filtration of drinks such as juices and wines but it is also being used as filter in paints, pharmaceuticals and environmental clean-up technologies.

FELDSPAR is a rock-forming mineral. It is used in glass and ceramic industries, pottery, porcelain and enamelware, soaps, bond for abrasive wheels, cement, glues, fertilizer and tarred roofing materials and as a sizing or filler in textiles and paper applications.

FLUORITE is used in the production of hydrofluoric acid, which is used in the pottery, ceramics, optical, electroplating and plastics industries. It is also used in the metallurgical treatment of bauxite, as a flux in open-hearth steel furnaces and in metal smelting as well as in carbon electrodes, emery wheels, electric arc welders and toothpaste as a source of fluorine.
GEMSTONES or PRECIOUS STONES are basically used for decorative purposes e.g. jewelry.
…To be concluded next week.

. Kayode Adeoye is energy analyst from Lagos