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How to contain novel coronavirus in Nigeria

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At the end of February, I had published an article titled ‘CORONA VIRUS URGENT PRECAUTIONS,’ giving strong warnings on the need to take precaution in our Country and create some checks at the border.
https://guardian.ng/features/coronavirus-urgent-precautions/, https://guardian.ng/features/how-to-contain-covid-19-by experts/. https://punchng.com/topics/health/page/3/.

Now in Nigeria, as of the time of writing incoming data from several reporting agencies indicate that there are currently 489,644 cases worldwide, 22,150 deaths, and 117,620 recovered. In the statistics in Nigeria, we have at the time of writing 51 cases, two deaths, and seven recovered.

It is for this reason that I have decided to do an updated rewrite on the now well-described Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). The update will look at the virus in all its ramifications based on available scientific information, several Government and agencies actions, and give preventive recommendations for individuals, households, and the Government.

Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that are common among animals. In rare cases, they are what scientists call zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted from animals to humans, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

COVID-19, the novel coronavirus identified in Wuhan City, China, in December 2019, is part of a family of viruses with a crown- or halo-like (corona) appearance. As explained on the Virginia Department of Health website, seven human coronaviruses have currently identified:
*Types 229E, NL63, OC43, and KHU1 are quite common and cause mild to moderate respiratory infections such as the common cold.
*SARS-CoV (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus), discovered in China in 2002, spread to 26 countries3 before disappearing in 2003. No SARS cases have been reported since 2004, anywhere in the world. As the name implies, SARS-CoV is associated with severe respiratory illness4 and had a mortality rate of approximately 10%.

*MERS-CoV (the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus), discovered in 2012, originated in Saudi Arabia and spread to 27 countries before being contained. Like SARS, MERS causes more severe respiratory infections than the four common coronaviruses and has a mortality rate of about 35%.

There may be several reasons for this. According to preliminary findings, COVID-19 can remain airborne for three hours and can survive on plastic and stainless steel surfaces for up to three days, thus facilitating its spread.

There has been an earlier dispute between the USA and China regarding who gave the virus. A few days ago, the Chinese Foreign Minister came live on CNN television to accuse USA soldiers of bringing the virus. However, the USA insists it came from China. Bioweapons expert Francis Boyle also believes COVID-19 weaponised with so-called “gain of function” properties that allow it to spread through the air up to 7 feet, which is higher than average.

COVID-19 appears to affect a disproportionate number of older people; the older you are the higher your susceptibility. The report in Lancet Infectious disease of March 12, 2020, stated that at present, the mortality rate for COVID-19 is between 3% and 6%.

Due to it being an enveloped virus (meaning its single-strand RNA enveloped in a bubble of lipid or fatty molecules), COVID-19 (as all other coronaviruses) is highly susceptible to soap and disinfectants, which is good news. Some disinfectants are more effective than others, however, which is the focus of this article.

Most coronaviruses spread the same way other cold-causing viruses do. Through infected people coughing and sneezing, by touching an infected person’s hands or face, or by touching things such as doorknobs that infected people have touched.
CDC recommends standard, contact, and airborne precautions for the management of hospitalized patients with known or suspected MERS-CoV infection. The CDC’s recommendations are consistent with those prescribed for the coronavirus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

Prevention
How to protect yourself
There are currently no vaccines available to protect you against human coronavirus infection. You may be able to reduce your risk of disease by doing the following: wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands avoid close contact with people who are sick.

How to protect others
If you have cold-like symptoms, you can help protect others by doing the following stay home while you are sick avoid close contact with others cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, then throw the tissue in the trash and wash your hands clean and disinfect objects and surfaces

Follow Five Steps to Wash Your Hands the Right Way
Washing your hands is easy, and it’s one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of germs. Clean hands can stop viruses from spreading from one person to another and throughout an entire community-from your home and workplace to childcare facilities and hospitals.

Follow these five steps every time.
1. Wet your hands with clean, running water (warm or cold), turn off the tap, and apply soap.
2. Lather your hands by rubbing them together with the soap. Lather the backs of your hands, between your fingers, and under your nails.
3. Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds. Need a timer? Hum the “Happy Birthday” song from beginning to end twice.
4. Rinse your hands well under clean, running water.
5. Dry your hands using a clean towel or air-dry them.
Why? Read the science behind the recommendations.
Use Hand Sanitizer When You Can’t Use Soap and Water.

You can use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol if soap and water are not available.
Washing hands with soap and water are the best way to get rid of germs in most situations. If soap and water are not readily available, you can use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. You can tell if the sanitizer contains at least 60% alcohol by looking at the product label.

Sanitizers can quickly reduce the number of germs on hands in many situations. However, sanitizers do not get rid of all types of bugs.

Hand sanitizers may not be as effective when hands are visibly dirty or greasy.
Hand sanitizers might not remove harmful chemicals from hands like pesticides and heavy metals.

Caution! Swallowing alcohol-based hand sanitizers can cause alcohol poisoning if you swallow more than a couple of mouthfuls. Keep it out of reach of young children and supervise their use. Learn more .https://www.cdc.gov/handwashing/show-me-the-science-hand-sanitizer.html#swallowing.

How to use hand sanitizer
Apply the gel product to the palm of one hand (read the label to learn the correct amount).
Rub your hands together.
Rub the gel over all the surfaces of your hands and fingers until your hands are dry. It should take around 20 seconds.
Preventive measures in your home.

Due to it being an enveloped virus (meaning its single-strand RNA enveloped in a bubble of lipid or fatty molecules), COVID-19 (as all other coronaviruses) is highly susceptible to soap and disinfectants, which is good news. Some disinfectants are more effective than others, however, which is the focus of this article.

There are many chemical disinfectants and sterilizing agents used in health care settings on the CDC’s Chemical Disinfectants for Infection Control webpage. Those listed below are readily available at home. Since the COVID-19 Pandemic, many individuals are now using homemade disinfectants globally.

BORDER CONTROL
At the beginning of the epidemic, I had recommended that Port Health needed to be on alert. Most of the measures used for Ebola must be activated. Now that it is Pandemic, a complete border closure will be an ideal solution to end the crisis. The total isolation or a draconian lockdown is very successful in places that have implemented it. It is Public Health 101. The Lancet recent publication also confirmed it.

*Prof Ashiru OFR is the President Africa Federation of Fertility Societies, Medical Director of MART Clinics Maryland Lagos and Joint Pioneer of IVF in Nigeria


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