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More reasons why Earth may not be spherical


Earth. PHOTO: PIRO4D / Pixabay

More reasons have emerged why the Earth cannot be spherical and there may not be black holes in our planetary system.

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting gravitational acceleration so strong that nothing—no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole.

But a professor of engineering geology and former lecturer at the Department of Physics at the Abia State University, Uturu, Agwu I. Agwu, has provided more reasons why the Earth cannot be spherical but flattened and there are no black holes.


Until now, earlier studies by Isaac Newton, Christopher Columbus, the United States National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) and indeed most geology and physics books postulate that the Earth is round/spherical and there are waves with complex amplitudes and black holes.

Indeed, before Columbus sailed the ocean blue, Aristotle and other ancient Greek scholars proposed that Earth was round. This was based on a number of observations, such as the fact that departing ships not only appeared smaller as they sailed away but also seemed to sink into the horizon, as one might expect if sailing across a ball.

Isaac Newton first proposed that Earth was not perfectly round. Instead, he suggested it was an oblate spheroid—a sphere that is squashed at its poles and swollen at the equator.

But Agwu in his latest book, Real Earth and Its Physics, said, according to Strahler and Strahler 1983 (pp3-4), there is no doubt that the Earth is spherical in shape. “But a spherically symmetric system is homogeneous and isotopic. The Earth with its freezing polar regions and blazing equatorial regions cannot therefore be spherically symmetric,” Agwu said.

The engineering geologist explained: “This book uses rill algebra, pairs of consecutive (c) Natural numbers (N) algebra, or cN algebra to do its physics. Real algebra permits us to determine the exact shape of the Earth. It indicates that this shape is much like an extremely flattened disc. We shall use rill algebra to obtain most if not all known parameters of processes and phenomena of the Earth…”

Interestingly, besides disputing on the shape of the Earth and the existence of black holes, the geologist told The Guardian: “It is important to point out that some of the findings and conclusions of this work do not agree with some conventional beliefs.”

On the existence of black holes, Agwu said: “It therefore seems clear that with rill algebra, the approximation inherent in some conventional mathematical equations will be eliminated. We have seen that return periods of earthquakes can be predicted exactly. We do not have waves with complex amplitudes and black holes in cN algebra systems.”

The geologist concluded: “In the general introduction and summary, we have derived or presented cN algebra equivalent of almost all known fundamental equations of mathematical physics. These include Newtons second law of motion, Newtons law of universal gravitation, Coulombs law of electrical interaction, Amperes law of line electrical interaction, Stefan Boltzmana law blackbody radiation, Planks law of blackbody radiation and Quantisation etc. We evaluated some of these equations and compared their numerical values in different regions of the world with empirically obtained values. We have found that the results of our equations can be said to be accurate.”

Agwu further explained: “Physics is the scientific discipline which studies the properties of matter. Such properties include shape, size, structure and motion of matter. Among these four main properties of matter, shape perhaps represents the most important. This because shape determines the nature and size of space occupied by matter. It also determines how the matter is distributed and the pattern of motion of matter. It may seem surprising that conventionally, the shape of the Earth is not exactly known.

“Kepler deduced that the shape of the Earth and other planets are elyptical. More modern views describe Earth’s shape as elypsoidal, spheroidal, oblate spheroidal and spherical. It seems obvious that until we know the exact shape of the Earth, it will be difficult for us to know its exact size, exact structure and exact pattern of motions. Structure has to do with how component parts of a system are distributed. Shape determines the nature and pattern of motions that a system can have…”

Besides Agwu, members of the Flat Earth Society claim to believe the Earth is flat. Walking around on the planet’s surface, it looks and feels flat, so they deem all evidence to the contrary, such as satellite photos of Earth as a sphere, to be fabrications of a “round Earth conspiracy” orchestrated by NASA and other government agencies.

But critics say the belief that the Earth is flat has been described as the ultimate conspiracy theory.

The 135-page book, divided into 27 sections including the conclusions, was published by Growthify Limited, 2019.

The book encompasses “all or most of the so-called fundamental equations of old time or classical physics, modern or quantum physics. It also covers most essential parts of astronomy and geophysics…”

The book represents abridged version, which presents to the world an alternate algebraic method for obtaining accurate values of parameters of processes and phenomena of the Earth. It uses a new kind of algebra called rill (exact physical space curvature), pairs of conservative natural numbers (DCN) or modern quantum (MQ) algebra.

According to Agwu, this algebra emerged from quantitative relationships found to exist between any two critically spaced rill marks on sandy hill slopes in different rainfall regions of the world.

This algebra, he said, is therefore physical algebra. “This algebra is indeed very simple. It does not involve irrational numbers, complex numbers or transcendental functions, (sine, cosine, tangent etc). It is finite algebra and involves whole numbers and proper rational fractions,” Agwu added.


Before now, Agwu said has researched independently on the structure of matter for more than forty years. Courtesy of the International Journal of Theoretical Physics (IJTP) and the secretary of its Board of Editors, then David Finkelstein, Agwu was made a foundation member of the International Quantum Structures Association (IQSA) and billed as quest speaker on the very sensitive and important topic “Gravitation and Quantisation” at the first and inaugural meeting of the IQSA which was held at Gigloocerno, Florence, Italy (1992).

This book represents on abridged version of some of the most important findings from his researches. Agwu’s publications, namely the booklets- The Mathematics of Everything, A New Natural Periodic Table of the Elements, as well as Floods and Erosion, which were published in 2002, give insights into some of his research findings. Agwu’s working experience encompasses field geology (10 years), field applications of hydrology, and soil/water conservation engineering (21 years).

After retirement in 2002, Agwu took up a contract appointment as a lecturer in the Department of Physics at the Abia State University, Uturu, where he taught Introductory Technology, Solid State Physics, Metallurgy and Materials Science, Quantum Physics and Quantum Mechanics. About seven years later, he left the university in order to concentrate fully on his independent research efforts.


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