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Natural cures for mental disorders validated

By Chukwuma Muanya
04 November 2021   |   3:05 am
Scientists have endorsed more natural therapies for the treatment of mental disorders including mood swings, anxiety, depression, Alzheimer’s and bipolar disorder.

Scent leaf

Scientists have endorsed more natural therapies for the treatment of mental disorders including mood swings, anxiety, depression, Alzheimer’s and bipolar disorder.

Alzheimer’s is a progressive disease that destroys memory and other important mental functions while bipolar disorder is an ailment associated with episodes of mood swings ranging from depressive low to manic highs.

Top on the list is regular exercises, breastfeeding in postmenopausal women, nature-based activities, lettuce, scent leaf/basil, adjusting fatty acids in the diet, eating fruit and vegetables, consuming a specific combination of essential amino acids, green tea leaves, bitter leaf, coffee and Ganoderma mushroom.

Researchers found that fenchol, a natural compound abundant in some plants including basil/scent leaf, can help protect the brain against Alzheimer’s disease pathology.

Scent leaf/holy basil (Ocimum gratissimum/nchuanwu in Ibo, Effirin in Yoruba).

The preclinical study led by University of South Florida Health (USF Health) researchers, the United States, which was published in the journal Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, discovered a sensing mechanism associated with the gut microbiome that explains how fenchol reduces neurotoxicity in the Alzheimer’s brain.

Emerging evidence indicates that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)- metabolites produced by beneficial gut bacteria and the primary source of nutrition for cells in your colon — contribute to brain health. The abundance of SCFAs is often reduced in older patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia. However, how this decline in SCFAs contributes to Alzheimer’s disease progression remains largely unknown.

Gut-derived SCFAs that travel through the blood to the brain can bind to and activate free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2), a cell signalling molecule expressed on brain cells called neurons.

Principal investigator, who is also a professor of neurosurgery and brain repair at the USF Health Morsani College of Medicine, where he directs the USF Center for Microbiome Research, Dr. Hariom Yadav, said: “Our study is the first to discover that stimulation of the FFAR2 sensing mechanism by these microbial metabolites (SCFAs) can be beneficial in protecting brain cells against the toxic accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein associated with Alzheimer’s disease.”

One of the two hallmark pathologies of Alzheimer’s disease is hardened deposits of Aβ that clump together between nerve cells to form amyloid protein plaques in the brain. The other is a neurofibrillary tangle of tau protein inside brain cells. These pathologies contribute to the neuron loss and death that ultimately cause the onset of Alzheimer’s, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of memory, thinking skills and other cognitive abilities.

Yadav and his collaborators delve into molecular mechanisms to explain how interactions between the gut microbiome and the brain might influence brain health and age-related cognitive decline. In this study, Yadav said, the research team set out to uncover the “previously unknown” function of FFAR2 in the brain.

The researchers first showed that inhibiting the FFAR2 receptor (thus blocking its ability to “sense” SCFAs in the environment outside the neuronal cell and transmit signalling inside the cell) contributes to the abnormal buildup of the Aβ protein causing neurotoxicity linked to Alzheimer’s disease.

Then, they performed large-scale virtual screening of more than 144,000 natural compounds to find potential candidates that could mimic the same beneficial effect of microbiota produced SCFAs in activating FFAR2 signaling. Yadav said identifying a natural compound alternative to SCFAs to optimally target the FFAR2 receptor on neurons is important because cells in the gut and other organs consume most of these microbial metabolites before they reach the brain through blood circulation.

Yadav’s team narrowed 15 leading compound candidates to the most potent one. Fenchol, a plant-derived compound that gives basil its aromatic scent, was best at binding to the FFAR’s active site to stimulate its signalling.

Further experiments in human neuronal cell cultures, as well as Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans (worm) and mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, demonstrated that fenchol significantly reduced excess Aβ accumulation and death of neurons by stimulating FFAR2 signalling, the microbiome sensing mechanism. When the researchers more closely examined how fenchol modulates Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, they found that the compound decreased senescent neuronal cells, also known as “zombie” cells, commonly found in brains with Alzheimer’s disease pathology.

Zombie cells stop replicating and die a slow death. Meanwhile, Yadav said, they build up in diseased and aging organs, create a damaging inflammatory environment, and send stress or death signals to neighboring healthy cells, which eventually also change into harmful zombie cells or die.

Yadav said: “Fenchol actually affects the two related mechanisms of senescence and proteolysis. “It reduces the formation of half-dead zombie neuronal cells and also increases the degradation of (nonfunctioning) Aβ, so that amyloid protein is cleared from the brain much faster.”

Yadav said in exploring fenchol as a possible approach for treating or preventing Alzheimer’s pathology, the USF Health team will seek answers to several questions. A key one is whether fenchol consumed in basil itself would be more or less bioactive (effective) than isolating and administering the compound in a pill? “We also want to know whether a potent dose of either basil or fenchol would be a quicker way to get the compound into the brain.”

Also, a new study has found outdoor nature-based activities are effective for improving mental health in adults, including those with pre-existing mental health problems.

The research, led by the University of York, United States, showed that taking part in outdoor, nature-based activities led to improved mood, less anxiety, and positive emotions.

The study titled “Nature-based outdoor activities for mental and physical health: Systematic review and meta-analysis” was published in the journal SSM – Population Health.

The study found that activities lasting for 20 to 90 minutes, sustained over the course of eight to 12 weeks, have the most positive outcomes for improving mood and reducing anxiety.

Gardening and exercise were among the activities associated with mental health benefits. Engaging in conservation activities was also reported to make people feel better, as did ‘forest bathing’ (stopping in a forest to take in the atmosphere).

Nature-based interventions (NBIs) support people to engage with nature in a structured way to improve mental health.

As part of the study, researchers screened 14,321 NBI records and analysed 50 studies.

Lead author of the study, Dr. Peter Coventry from the Department of Health Sciences, said: “We’ve known for some time that being in nature is good for health and wellbeing, but our study reinforces the growing evidence that doing things in nature is associated with large gains in mental health.

“While doing these activities on your own is effective, among the studies we reviewed it seems that doing them in groups led to greater gains in mental health.”

However, the study found there was less evidence that outdoor activities led to improved physical health. The research suggests that there need to be more appropriate ways to measure the short and longer-term impact of nature-based activities on physical health.

The paper argues there is a need for substantial, sustained investment in the community and place-based solutions such as nature-based interventions, which are likely to play important role in addressing a post-pandemic surge in demand for mental health support.

“One of the key ideas that might explain why nature-based activities are good for us is that they help to connect us with nature in meaningful ways that go beyond passively viewing nature,” Coventry added.

Meanwhile, a study in the journal Bipolar Disorders showed that individuals with bipolar disorder who adjust their intake of specific fatty acids might experience less variability in their moods.

Nearly three per cent of people in the United States have a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, according to the National Alliance on Mental Illness. People with this condition may experience dramatic shifts in their moods, energy levels, and sleep patterns. These shifts in mood may include manic or hypomanic episodes, during which the person feels extreme elation or irritability. During episodes of bipolar depression, they may experience feelings of sadness and hopelessness.

Several studies have suggested that there may be a relationship between the consumption of seafood rich in omega-3 fatty acids and a lower prevalence of bipolar disorders. However, studies looking at the effects of fish oil supplements on the condition have found no such link.

An author of the study and professor and chair of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health at Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Dr. Erika Saunders, explained the design of the study to Medical News Today. She said that the researchers wanted to see whether making a dietary change “for a very specific biological reason could alter mood stability or improve mood variability” in people with bipolar disorder.

Research has shown that medications that doctors commonly use for treating bipolar disorder can change how the body breaks down fatty acids.

The Penn State College of Medicine researchers hypothesised that by changing the type and number of fatty acids in the diet, the body would generate metabolites with specific purposes, such as reducing inflammation or pain.

Specifically, they wanted to look at whether lowering an individual’s intake of linoleic acid — an omega-6 fatty acid — while increasing their intake of the dietary omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) might be an effective treatment approach for bipolar disorder.

The researchers assigned 82 participants with bipolar disorder to one of two groups: control or experimental.

Those in the experimental group decreased their linoleic acid consumption by limiting red meat, eggs, and certain oils. They also increased their omega-3 fatty acid consumption by adding flaxseed and fatty fish, such as tuna and salmon, to their diet. The researchers also specified the diet for the control group so that the participants did not know to which group they belonged.

All participants received foods, specific meal plans, and instructions on preparation for 12 weeks. The team instructed them to follow the diet while continuing with their normal care; including taking any prescribed mood-stabilising medications.

The researchers gave the participants smartphones and asked them to use the devices to complete twice daily surveys about their mood, pain, and other symptoms. Additionally, technicians regularly took blood samples to measure the participants’ fatty acid levels and ensure that they had stuck with the diet enough to alter their biochemical levels.

Also, a recent study found that eating more fruits and vegetables was linked to better mental well being among children. On the other hand, children who skipped meals were more likely to have lower well-being scores.

Although well being among adults and children is similar, it is not exactly the same for both groups. Children are still growing, and multiple factors need to be taken into account when evaluating children’s health.

One area of interest is the association between nutrition and children’s mental well-being. A new study, which was published in the journal BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, showed that children who eat more fruits and vegetables are more likely to have a better sense of mental well-being than those who eat less.

The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provide the following definition of what it means for children to be mentally healthy: “Being mentally healthy during childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones and learning healthy social skills and how to cope when there are problems. Mentally healthy children have a positive quality of life and can function well at home, in school, and in their communities.”

Research is ongoing when it comes to understanding the factors that influence mental health and well being. The relationship between nutrition and mental health is an area of great interest — particularly regarding how nutrition is linked to the mental well-being of children.

The authors of the recent study noted: “Nutrition, a modifiable factor at both an individual and societal level, is an important influence on health throughout the life course, is intricately involved in [the] development and normal functioning of the body, and thus has the potential to affect both physical health and mental well-being.”

The recent study was a cross-sectional study that examined the association between children’s consumption of fruits and vegetables, their meal choices, and their mental well-being.

Researchers collected data from more than 50 schools, including primary schools, secondary schools, and further education colleges.

The study found that higher levels of fruit and vegetable consumption were associated with higher mental well-being scores among secondary school children.

It also found that, in secondary school children, only consuming an energy drink instead of breakfast was associated with lower mental well-being scores than not eating breakfast at all.

For both primary and secondary school children, the scientists found that mental well-being scores were higher for those who had breakfast or lunch than for children who did not eat these meals.

Also, consuming Amino LP7, a specific combination of essential amino acids could inhibit the development of dementia.

Until now, protein intake is known to be vital for maintaining brain function in older individuals. Now, using a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, researchers have shown that the intake of a specific set of amino acids can inhibit the death of brain cells, protect the connections between them, and reduce inflammation, preserving brain function. Their research suggests that this amino acid combination called Amino LP7 can hinder the development of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease.

Dementia — a condition involving the extreme loss of cognitive function — is caused by a variety of disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. According to World Health Organisation, approximately 10 million individuals worldwide develop dementia every year, indicating the high psychological and social impact of this condition. Dementia mainly affects older people, and so far, simple and effective strategies for preventing this condition have remained elusive.

In a recent study published in Science Advances, Japanese researchers showed that a low protein diet could accelerate brain degeneration in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. More importantly, they found that Amino LP7 — a supplement containing seven specific amino acids — could slow down brain degeneration and dementia development in these animals. Their work expands on previous studies, which have demonstrated the effectiveness of Amino LP7 in improving cognitive function.

Dr. Makoto Higuchi from the National Institutes for Quantum Sciences and Technology, one of the lead scientists on the study, explained, “In older individuals, low protein diets are linked to poor maintenance of brain function. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. So, we wanted to understand whether supplementation with essential amino acids can protect the brains of older people from dementia and if yes, what mechanisms would contribute to this protective effect?”

First, the researchers studied how a low protein diet affects the brain in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease, which generally demonstrate neuro-degeneration and abnormal protein aggregates called “Tau” aggregates in the brain. They found that mice consuming a low protein diet not only showed accelerated brain degeneration but also had signs of poor neuronal connectivity. Interestingly, these effects were reversed after supplementation with Amino LP7, indicating that the combination of seven specific amino acids could inhibit brain damage.

Next, the research team examined how Amino LP7 affects different signs of brain degeneration in the Alzheimer’s model. Untreated mice showed high levels of progressive brain degeneration, but Amino LP7 treatment suppressed neuronal death and thereby reduced brain degeneration, even though the Tau aggregates remained. According to Dr. Akihiko Kitamura, who also led this study, “Tau plaques in the brain are characteristic of Alzheimer’s and most treatments target them. However, we have shown that it is possible to overcome this Tau deposition and prevent brain atrophy via supplementation with Amino LP7.”

Next, to understand how Amino LP7 protects the brain, the researchers comprehensively analyzed the gene-level changes induced by Amino LP7. Their findings were quite encouraging. They observed that Amino LP7 reduces brain inflammation and also prevents kynurenine, an inflammation inducer, from entering the brain, thereby preventing inflammatory immune cells from attacking neurons. They also found that Amino LP7 reduces neuronal death and improves neuronal connectivity, improving brain function.

“These results suggest that essential amino acids can help maintain balance in the brain and prevent brain deterioration. Our study is the first to report that specific amino acids can hinder the development of dementia,” say Dr. Hideaki Sato and Dr. Yuhei Takado, both of whom majorly contributed to the study. “Although our study was performed in mice, it brings hope that amino acid intake could also modify the development of dementia in humans, including Alzheimer’s disease,” they added.

The study by this research group throws open several avenues for a better understanding of how dementias occur and how they can be prevented. Given that Amino LP7 improves brain function in older people without cognitive impairment, their findings suggest that it could also be effective in people with cognitive dysfunction.

Indeed, this patent-pending supplement could one day help millions worldwide live an improved, dementia-free life.
Western diet linked to cognitive decline and neurodegeneration in a mouse study

Over the past few years, studies on a typical Western diet have linked it to adverse reactions in the body, including prostate cancer, sepsis, and chronic gut infections.

A new study suggests that a Western diet may have a negative effect on the brain, leading to cognitive decline and neurodegenerative issues. The researchers believe their findings may offer potential therapies for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease.

The study appears in the journal iScience.

Neurodegenerative disorders include a variety of conditions resulting from loss of structure and function of the central or peripheral nervous system. The two most common neurodegenerative disorders are Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

Previous research shows that the impact of obesity and a poor diet can increase a person’s risk of developing a neurodegenerative condition, such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Another study earlier this year found that preventing obesity earlier in life through a healthier diet could delay or prevent Alzheimer’s disease.

Breastfeeding may help prevent cognitive decline
A new study led by researchers at the University of California – Los Angeles (UCLA) Health Sciences has found that women over the age of 50 who had breastfed their babies performed better on cognitive tests compared to women who had never breastfed.

The findings, published in the journal Evolution, Medicine and Public Health, suggest that breastfeeding may have a positive impact on postmenopausal women’s cognitive performance and could have long-term benefits for the mother’s brain.

Lead author of the study and an Assistant Professor in the UCLA Department of Anthropology and the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Molly Fox, said: “While many studies have found that breastfeeding improves a child’s long-term health and well-being, our study is one of very few that has looked at the long-term health effects for women who had breastfed their babies.

“Our findings, which show superior cognitive performance among women over 50 who had breastfed, suggest that breastfeeding may be ‘neuroprotective’ later in life.”

Cognitive health is critical for wellbeing in ageing adults. Yet, when cognition becomes impaired after the age of 50, it can be a strong predictor of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the leading form of dementia and cause of disability among the elderly — with women comprising nearly two-thirds of Americans living with the disease.

Many studies also show that phases of a woman’s reproductive life history, such as menstruation, pregnancy, breastfeeding and menopause can be linked to a higher or lower risk for developing various health conditions like depression or breast cancer, yet few studies have examined breastfeeding and its impact on women’s long-term cognition. Of those that have, there has been conflicting evidence as to whether breastfeeding might be linked to better cognitive performance or Alzheimer’s risk among post-menopausal women.

“What we do know is that there is a positive correlation between breastfeeding and a lower risk of other diseases such as type-2 diabetes and heart disease and that these conditions are strongly connected to a higher risk for AD,” said Dr. Helen Lavretsky, the senior author of the study and a professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior at UCLA.

“Because breastfeeding has also been found to help regulate stress, promote infant bonding and lower the risk of post-partum depression, which suggest acute neurocognitive benefits for the mother, we suspected that it could also be associated with long-term superior cognitive performance for the mother as well,” added Fox.

To find out, the researchers analysed data collected from women participating in two cross-sectional randomized controlled 12-week clinical trials at UCLA Health: The “Brain Connectivity and Response to Tai Chi in Geriatric Depression and Cognitive Decline,” included depressed participants; and The “Reducing Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease in High-Risk Women through Yoga or Memory Training that included non-depressed participants with some subjective memory complaints and risk for heart disease.

Between the two trials, 115 women chose to participate, with 64 identified as depressed and 51 non-depressed. All participants completed a comprehensive battery of psychological tests measuring learning, delayed recall, executive functioning and processing speed. They also answered a questionnaire about their reproductive life history that included questions about the age they began menstruating, the number of complete and incomplete pregnancies, the length of time they breastfed for each child and their age of menopause.

Importantly, none of the participants had been diagnosed with dementia, or other psychiatric diagnoses such as bipolar disorder, alcohol or drug dependence, neurological disorders or had other disabilities preventing their participation or taking any psychoactive medications. There was also no significant difference in age, race, education or other cognitive measures between the depressed and non-depressed participants.

Key findings from the researchers’ analysis of the data collected from questionnaires on the women’s reproductive history revealed that about 65 per cent of non-depressed women reported having breastfed, compared to 44 per cent of the depressed women. All non-depressed participants reported at least one completed pregnancy compared to 57.8 per cent of the depressed participants.

Results from the cognitive tests also revealed that those who had breastfed, regardless of whether they were depressed or not, performed better in all four of the cognitive tests measuring for learning, delayed recall, executive functioning and processing compared to women who had not breastfed.

Separate analyses of the data for the depressed and non-depressed groups also revealed that all four cognitive domain scores were significantly associated with breastfeeding in the women who were not depressed. But in the women who were depressed, only two of the cognitive domains — executive functioning and processing speed — were significantly associated with breastfeeding.

Interestingly, the researchers also found that longer time spent breastfeeding was associated with better cognitive performance. When they added up all the time a woman spent breastfeeding in her life, they found that women who did not breastfeed had significantly lower cognitive scores in three out of four domains compared to women who had breastfed for one-12 months, and in all four domains compared to the women who had breastfed for more than 12 months. Women who had breastfed the longest had the highest cognitive test scores.

“Future studies will be needed to explore the relationship between women’s history of breastfeeding and cognitive performance in larger, more geographically diverse groups of women. It is important to better understand the health implications of breastfeeding for women, given that women today breastfeed less frequently and for shorter time periods than was practiced historically,” said Fox.

Natural cures for depression
Also, researchers have validated natural cures for depression. Top on the list is regular exercise. Others are lettuce, scent leaf/holy basil (Ocimum gratissimum/nchuanwu in Ibo, Effirin in Yoruba), green tea leaves (Camelia sinensis), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), coffee and Ganoderma mushroom.

Scientists have found some concrete evidence that exercising a little bit every day does reduce depression symptoms and boost overall mood.

For years, studies have found a connection between working out and lower depression risk – we all know exercise releases endorphins and endorphins make you happy.

But until now, there was no evidence to show a causal relationship when it came to depression – whether physical activity really did affect the condition, or simply that people with depression exercised less.

Now, a team of investigators has used a novel research method to strongly support physical activity as a preventive measure for depression. While many studies have found associations between greater levels of physical activity and lower rates of depression, a key question has remained — does physical activity actually reduce the risk of depression or does depression lead to reduce physical activity? Now a team led by Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), United States (US), and investigators have used a novel research method to strongly support physical activity as a preventive measure for depression.

Their report was published online in JAMA Psychiatry.

Doctor of the Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit in the MGH Center for Genomic Medicine, lead author of the report, Karmel Choi, said: “Using genetic data, we found evidence that higher levels of physical activity may causally reduce the risk for depression. Knowing whether an associated factor actually causes an outcome is important because we want to invest in preventive strategies that really work.”

The technique used in the study — Mendelian randomisation — uses gene variants to study the effects of a non-genetic factor in a different approach from that of traditional research. The gene variants are studied as a type of natural experiment in which people show higher or lower average levels of a factor like a physical activity that are related to gene variants they have inherited. Because genetic variants are inherited in a relatively random fashion, they can serve as less biased proxies to estimate the true relationship between physical activity and depression. This approach can also determine which of two traits is actually causative — if levels of trait A affects the levels of trait B but levels of trait B do not affect levels of trait A, that implies that trait A leads to trait B, but not vice versa.

For this study, the researchers identified gene variants from the results of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that were conducted for physical activity in the U.K. Biobank and for depression by a global research consortium. GWAS results for physical activity were available for two different measures: one based on 377,000 participants’ self-reports of physical activity and the other based on readings of motion-detecting sensors called accelerometers, worn on the wrists of more than 91,000 participants. The GWAS for depression was based on data from more than 143,000 participants with and without this condition.

The results of the Mendelian randomisation study indicated that accelerometer-based physical activity, but not a self-reported activity, does appear to protect against the risk of depression. The differences between the two methods of measuring physical activity could result not only from inaccuracies in participants’ memories or desire to present themselves in a positive way but also from the fact that objective readings capture things other than planned exercise — walking to work, climbing the stairs, mowing the lawn — that participants may not recognize as physical activity. The analysis revealed no causal relationship in the other direction, between depression and physical activity.

“On average,” Choi says, “doing more physical activity appears to protect against developing depression. Any activity appears to be better than none; our rough calculations suggest that replacing sitting with 15 minutes of a heart-pumping activity like running, or with an hour of moderately vigorous activity, is enough to produce the average increase in accelerometer data that was linked to lower depression risk.”
Lettuce ‘cure’ for depression, stroke, thromboembolism

Can eating meals rich in lettuce provide relief from anxiety, depression, chronic pain, sleeplessness, indigestion, lack of appetite, blood clots, heart attack, stroke and thromboembolism?

Botanically called Lactuca sativa, lettuce, a leafy vegetable, belongs to the Asteraceae family. Lettuce has been traditionally used for relieving pain, inflammation, insomnia, anxiety, neurosis, dry coughs, rheumatic pain, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite. Moreover, the therapeutic significance of lettuce includes its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties.

However, a recent study has validated lettuce for the treatment of anxiety, depression, chronic pains, sleeplessness, indigestion, lack of appetite, blood clots, heart attack, stroke and thromboembolism.

Thromboembolism is the formation in a blood vessel of a clot (thrombus) that breaks loose and is carried by the bloodstream to plug another vessel.

The study published in BMC Complement Alternative Medicine is titled “Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant properties of Lactuca sativa (CV. Grand Rapids) plant tissues and cell suspension in rats.”

The researchers concluded: “The present experimental findings of different extracts suggest that Lactuca sativa is a broad spectrum pharmaceutical crop conforming significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant properties that has potential to replace synthetic drugs.

“More interestingly, cell suspension exudate showed prominent results in all the assays which is the main point of interest because valuable secondary metabolites and economically important substances can be produced in bulk from plant cell suspensions in simple, cost-effective and reproducible way. However, the advanced study is needed to explore the precise mechanism of action the active components.”

Several studies have shown that the function of anticoagulant drugs is to inhibit blood clotting, which is the major cause of heart attacks and strokes. Anticoagulant drugs can be used with a number of diseases when there is a high risk of blood clots. The researchers said that since anti-coagulants are used for cardiac problems, instead of relying on blood thinners, physicians could shift to herbal medicine. It has been reported that antioxidants can counteract the haematological and blood coagulation disturbances, oxidative stress, and hepatorenal (liver and kidney) damages.