Buhari’s huge parting debt profile – Part 2
The DMO said additional promissory notes would be issued in the course of the year, along with new borrowings by state governments, which would further increase the public debt stock. Details of the debt stock showed that the multilateral loans category consisted of the IMF $3.359 billion, while the World Bank Group and African Development Bank (AfDB) Group $16.36 billion. The three financial institutions accounted for about 52 per cent of the country’s total $31.477.14 billion debt stock.
The breakdown of the debt to World Bank’s affiliate institutions showed International Development Association (IDA) $10.05 billion; and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) $409.51 million. Similarly, the debt to African Development Bank stands at about $1.326 billion; Africa Growing Together Fund $0.14 million; African Development Fund $921.91 million; Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa $5.88million; European Development Fund $52.52million; Islamic Development Bank $30.22million, and International Fund For Agricultural Development $201.68million.
On the bilateral level, Nigeria’s total debt to various institutions is about $3.949 billion, or 12.54 per cent of the total debt stock.
They consist of those to Chinese financial institutions, including a Exim Bank of China $3.241billion; French institutions (Agence Francaise Development) $403.65milion; Japanese (Japan International Cooperation Agency) $76.69million; India (Exim Bank of India) $34.87million, and Germany (Kreditanstalt Fur Wiederaufbua) $192.71 million. Commercial debt instrument debts totaling $11.16.35 billion, which account for about 35.48 per cent of the total debt, include Eurobonds $10,868.35 bilion; Diaspora Bond $300million
Further details of the total N15.456 trillion Federal Government debts stock by instruments of as at the date under review showed that FGN Bonds of N11.241 trillion, or 72.75 per cent; Nigerian Treasury Bills N2.760 trillion, or 17.86 per cent; Nigerian Treasury Bonds N100.988 billion, or 0.65 per cent; FGN Savings Bond $12.984billion, or 0.08 per cent; FGN Sukuk N362.557 billion, or 2.35 per cent, Green Bond N25.690 billion, or 0.17 per cent, and Promissory Notes N951.740billion, or 6.16 per cent.
Details of the debts stock of the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory stood at about N4.190 trillion, with Lagos N493.32 billion; Rivers N266.94 billion, Akwa Ibom N239.21 billion and Delta N235.86 billion among the top debtors in the country. The four states are among the richest states in the country.
I grew up in an age that insists that he who goes a-borrowing, goes a-sorrowing. It was an idiom used by the American Nationalist, Benjamin Franklin (17 January, 1706-17 April, 1790). Borrowing makes our lives unfortunate, but we are the ones who borrow, so we face problems simultaneously. To borrow means ‘to take and use something that belongs to somebody else, and return it to them at a later time. Does this action lead to unpleasurable consequences? Borrowing is a doomed cause. It ends with its beginning, like a closed circle and never lets you go away. It grabs you with its tentacles, until it completely tears you to pieces, like a fierce beast, and then leaves you to the vultures and jackals. People borrow things, and money especially, when they are in need. But this need is caused in most of the cases by a person’s laziness and foolishness and mismanagement too. If the individual is ambitious and clever enough, he will never sink in the mud puddle of need. If he is smart enough to limit himself and determine his needs to his abilities. Even if you borrow with a good will in mind, an idea, what guarantees that you will be able to return what had been lent to you? Then you will have to borrow again, and again, and…except.
My late mother, Madam Juliana Adekolarin Teniola, cautioned me that I should not make borrowing a habit as I will suffer for it in the end. She also instructed me that self-discipline will help me achieve greatness and that people who tend to borrow often are usually slow in settling debts. But as I grew older, I realised that debt is a major development issue and there can never be any growth without incurring some level of debt. One needs to borrow from commercial houses to make progress and profit in any enterprise. When too much debt is obtained it definitely becomes a burden.
Debt has a significant effect on global poverty. For example, borrowed money accrues interest, which adds to debt and can lead to impoverished lands suffering because massive interest payments drain funds that are needed for things like infrastructure investment. Compound interest over a matter of decades can soon render a serviceable debt unsustainable.
Addressing the media on December 30, 2019, my friend, the Minister of Information, Mr Lai Mohammed said Nigeria’s debt servicing to revenue ratio has been higher than desirable. The minister put the country’s current debt profile at $83.8 billion and dismissed reports that the country’s external debt was 81billion. According to him, the entire debt profile comprises 27.163billion external and 56.720billion domestic debt. He said the debt figure represented the cumulative borrowings by successive governments and that the total public debt stock in 2015 was 63.80 billion, comprising 10.31 billion of external debt and 53.49 billion domestic debt.”
Presenting his budget on October 8 last year to the National Assembly, President Muhammadu Buhari, GCFR, said “we have provisioned N3.12 trillion for this in 2021, representing an increase of N445.57 billion from N2.68 trillion in 2020. A total of N2.183 trillion has been set aside to service domestic debts while N940.89 billion has been provided for foreign debt service. N220 billion is provided for transfers to the Sinking Fund to pay off maturing bonds issued to local contractors and creditors”.
Like every Nigerian, I am worried by the rising Nigeria’s debt profile because debt is the principal cause of poverty, leading to human suffering and misery and hampering economic development. This is not what we should handover to our children and grandchildren.
I have to make reference to the speech by then President Olusegun Obasanjo, when he addressed the National Assembly on debt on July 26, 2005.
He said on that day that, “I am very pleased at this opportunity to brief you today on issues relating to our nation’s debt relief, the contours and struggle for debt relief, the terms of the relief we were granted by the Paris Club, and the opportunities that this opens up for our dear country Nigeria. Let me start by thanking you, members of the National Assembly, for your understanding, encouragement and support during the struggle for debt relief. It is the courage and vision that you exhibited in standing firm with the Executive that made it possible for us to carry out the arduous negotiations that resulted in this unprecedented relief for Nigeria. Let me say at this point that this pattern of cooperation should not end here. We have more national and international challenges before us and only cooperation, commitment, mutual respect can ensure victory for our ideas, initiatives and actions. In this brief, in respect of debt relief, I will speak on the inherited debt overhang, the impact it had on our effort to grow and develop the economy, the struggle for debt relief, the results of this struggle, the benefits to our country and people, and the future. Of course, not all Nigerians know the truth, the importance or impact of debt relief, and the opportunities that it provides for our country”.
Now, we are in a dilemma over our debt profile. I am sure we are not expecting another debt relief again. The potential problems of government borrowing is that it will lead to higher debt interest payment and also lead to increased rates in taxes, thereby leading to inflationary pressures. The prediction in 2005 was that paying the debt will free up cash that will push towards capital expenditure and bring the desired economic boom. Instead what we have now is that we spend more on recurrent expenditure and limited capital expenditure. We are back in full cycle. Poverty and conflict are closely interconnected.
Now we are being told that Nigeria’s total debt profile will hit N33 trillion this year. The rate at which we are going, in terms of our debt profile, may lead to Nigeria being put up for sale.
Very sad indeed.
Teniola, a former Director at the Presidency, writes from Lagos.