Randle: Never give up trying (2)
THE Global Assessment and Management template is sufficiently versatile and flexible to accommodate more than a single linear outcome. Indeed, it has embraced the principles of “Lateral Thinking” as espoused by Professor Edward de Bono of Cambridge University with his creative “six thinking hats” – each thinking role is identified with a coloured “thinking hat” e.g. the Green Hat focuses on creativity, the possibilities, alternatives and new ideas.
“Six Thinking Hats” is a book, which prescribes a tool for group discussion and individual thinking involving six coloured hats.
The book and associated idea of parallel (lateral) thinking provide a means for groups to plan thinking processes in a detailed and cohesive way and in doing so to think together more effectively.
The premise of the method is that the human brain thinks in a number of distinct ways which can be identified, deliberately accessed and hence planned for us in a structured way allowing one to develop strategies for thinking about particular issues. Dr de Bono identifies five distinct states in which the brain can be “sensitized.” In each of these states, the brain will identify and bring into conscious thought certain aspects of issues being considered (e.g. gut instinct, pessimistic judgment, neutral facts).
A compelling example presented is sensitivity to “mismatch” stimuli. This is presented as a valuable survival instinct, because, in the natural world, the thing that is out of the ordinary way may well be dangerous. This state is identified as the root of negative judgment and critical thinking. Six distinct states are identified and assigned a color:
• (Information (White Hat) – considering purely what information is available, what are the facts? What do we know, what do we need to know?
• Emotions (Red Hat) – instinctive gut reaction or statements of emotional feeling (but not any justification)
• Logical Negative points judgment (Black Hat) – logic applied to identifying flaws or barriers, seeking mismatch.
• Logical Positive points judgment (Yellow Hat) –logic applied to identifying benefits, seeking harmony.
• Creativity (Green Hat) – statements of provocation and investigation, seeing where a thought goes.
• Thinking (Blue Hat) – thinking about the thinking.
The White Hat
Information Available and needed
The Black Hat
Cautions and difficulties where things might go wrong
The Green Hat
Alternatives and creative ideas
The Red Hat
Intuition, Feelings and hunches
The Yellow Hat
Values and benefits
Why something might go wrong
The Blue Hat
Managing the thinking process
Coloured hats are used as metaphors for each state. Switching to a state is symbolized by the act of putting on a coloured hat, either literally or metaphorically. These metaphors allow for more complete and elaborate segregation of the states than the preconceptions inherent in people’s current language. All of these thinking hats help for thinking deeper. The Six thinking hats indicate problems and solutions about an idea or a product you might come up with.
Strategies and Programmes
“Having identified six models of thinking that can be accessed, distinct programmes can be created. These are sequences of hats, which encompass and structure the thinking process toward a distinct goal. A number of these are included in the materials provided to support the franchised training of the six hats method; however it is often necessary to adapt them to suit an individual purpose. Also, programmes are often “emergent”, which is to say that the group might plan first few hats then the facilitator will see what seems to be the right way to go.
Sequences always begin and end with a blue hat; the group agrees together how they will think, then they do the thinking, then they evaluate the outcomes of that thinking and what they should do next. Sequences (and indeed hats) may be used by individuals working alone or in groups.”
“In ordinary, unstructured thinking this process is unfocussed; the thinker leaps from critical thinking to neutrality to optimism and so on without structure of strategy. The Six Thinking Hats process attempts to introduce parallel thinking.
Many individuals are used to this and develop their own habits unconsciously. Sometimes these are effective, other times not. What is certain is that when thinking in a group these individual strategies will not tend to converge. As a result, discussion will tend not to converge. Due to the power of the ego and the identified predilection to black hat thinking in the majority of western culture, this can lead to very destructive meetings. Even with good courtesy and clear shared objectives in any collaborative thinking activity there is a natural tendency for “spaghetti thinking” where one person is thinking about the benefits while another considers the facts and so on. The hats process avoids this. Everyone considers and all look in the same direction together. For example, a façade of a house (metaphorically speaking) and then the group will turn to the backyard. These can also be problems, or the benefits, or the facts, reducing distractions and supporting cross pollination of thought. This is achieved because everyone will put on one hat, the white hat, together, then they will all put on the next hat together. In this way all present think in the same way at the same time. The only exception is the facilitator, who will tend to keep the blue hat on all the time to make sure things progress effectively. The blue hat tends to be the outward-looking, leader/trail blazing hat that attracts the leaders of all groups. The hats are not a description but a way to look at things. Therefore such methodology aids in better design. This is because as a designing system it is based on a creating system rather than an adversarial confrontational thinking system such as dialectic where there is somebody having opposite position.
Whilst the ideas of the hats themselves provide significant benefits, there is more to the six hats method as applied within de Bono thinking systems and as trained under his franchise. In particular the phase at which the hats are used is highly relevant.
Typically, a project will begin with an extended white hat action, as everyone gets “on the same page” creating a shared vision of the issue being addressed. Thereafter each hat is used for a few minutes at a time only, except the red hat which is limited to a very short 30 seconds or so to ensure that it is an instinctive gut reaction, rather than a form of judgment. This pace is believed to have a positive impact on the thinking process, in accordance with Malcolm Gladwell’s theories “blink” thinking.
This ensures that groups think together in a focused manner, staying on task; it also ensures that they focus their efforts on the most important elements of any issue being discussed. However, it also has the potential to create conflict if not well facilitated, since people can feel “railroaded”. To avoid this it is important to notice when there is any significant difference of opinion on the thinking process or the area in which it should focus.
Using a variety of approaches within thinking and problem solving allows the issue to be addressed from a variety of angles, thus servicing the needs of all individuals concerned. The thinking hats are useful for learners as they illustrate the need for individuals to address problems from a variety of different angles. They also aid learners as they allow the individual to recognize deficiencies in the way that they approach problem solving thus are allowing them to rectify such issues.
De Bono believed that the key to a successful use of the Six Thinking Hats methodology was the deliberate focusing of the discussion on a particular approach as needed during the meeting or collaboration session. For instance, a meeting may be called to review a particular problem and to develop a solution for the problem. The Six Thinking Hats method could then be used in a sequence to first of all explore the problem, then develop a set of solutions, and to finally choose a solution through critical examination of the solution set.
So the meeting may start with everyone assuming the Blue hat to discuss how the meeting will be conducted and to develop the goals and objectives. The discussion may then move to Red hat thinking in order to collect opinions and reactions to the problem. This phase may also be used to develop constraints for the actual solution such as who will be affected by the problem and/or solutions. Next the discussion may move to the (Yellow then) Green hat in order to generate ideas and possible solutions. Next the discussion may move between White hat thinking as part of developing information and Black hat thinking to develop criticisms of the solution set.
Because everyone is focused on a particular approach at any one time, the group tends to be more collaborative that if one person is reacting emotionally (Red hat) while another person is trying to be objective (White hat) and still another person is being critical of the points which emerge from the discussion (Black hat).
• Bashorun Randle is a former President of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN) and former Chairman of KPMG Nigeria and Africa Region. He is currently the Chairman, JK Randle Professional Services.