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Sun exposure and prostate cancer in black men


Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally with burden of death on the developing countries. Although infectious diseases like malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis still plague developing countries like Nigeria, cancer now kills more people globally than these three infectious diseases put together. There is an upward of cancer incidence in developing countries including Nigeria; and this, in part, is due to late diagnosis and inadequate health system designed to address this problem.

In Nigeria, prostate cancer represents the leading cause of death among men and this pattern is similar to what obtains among black male populations globally. Some urologists have suggested that up to 40% of men in Nigeria could be living with problems in their prostate. Unfortunately, even in developed nations with good health systems like U.S., the burden of death due to prostate cancer is on the black population. Despite the advances in medical treatments of prostate cancer, death due to prostate cancer among the black community continues to increase. This observation has been validated by several scientific reports that have documented a huge disparity in the burden and outcome of prostate cancer, with the black men being at disadvantage. What continues to puzzle medical experts is the extent to which the biology of prostate cancer is different between blacks and whites.

There are many risk factors of prostate cancer opined by experts but the major ones are race and age. Since both white and black grow old, the obvious factor accounting for the disparity is skin colour. This simply means that the fact that one is a black man increases one’s risk of having prostate cancer. Hence, this makes it essential to seek information that will re-script and re-programe our understanding and perception of this disease. This will be very important in knowing how we can maximise our environment to suit our biology. Nigeria is the most populous black nation on earth and every disease that has the blacks as the risk group could have up to 25 per cent burden on Nigeria. Behind the numbers and statistics of prostate cancer deaths are tears, pains and sorrows of families and loved ones, who wondered on whether something could be done to prevent it.

So, the question to ask at this juncture is: what is different between the black and white man? The colour of the skin makes a glaring difference between both. The dark skin of the African man confers a uniqueness that needs to be understood properly.

A major function of the skin is the harnessing of the sun radiation to produce Vitamin D. The darkness of the black skin reduces the efficiency of the solar ultraviolet β (UV β) radiation to stimulate the production of biologically functional Vitamin D. The implication of this is that the black man requires more solar exposure than the white to generate the same amount of Vitamin D. Hence, our adaptation of foreign lifestyle and fashion that limits our exposure to sun will limit the amount of Vitamin D in the black man. One wonders at this point on the reason the aged, in most ancient cultures, are often exposed to the sun to keep them healthy. Sure, this cannot be for warmth because warmth can be obtained through other means. They must have observed that those exposed to sun live healthier than those who were not.

At present, scientific evidences are emerging indicating that despite the year-round sunny days, Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is widespread in Africa. Unfortunately, warnings on the consequence of Vitamin D deficiency is often restricted to children because it helps them build bone and its deficiency results in physically observable bone problem. Beyond bone health, Vitamin D is also necessary for normal prostate biology. In fact, it is a major Vitamin that the prostate depends on to maintain physiological balance. Scientists have demonstrated that it reduces inflammation and progression of low-grade prostate cancer. One of such scientific clinical trials published in the British Journal of Cancer showed that adequate Vitamin D could reduce the risk of death by 700% even in patients with prostate cancer and also reduces the prostate specific antigen (PSA) by 50%.

The unfortunate thing is that many people focus their attention on the negative aspect of sun exposure based on information that sun exposure could cause cancer. This represents, as put by Chimamanda Adichie, the danger of a single story. This type of campaign relies on information obtained primarily among the white population and appropriates it to the black without putting our uniqueness into consideration. Any form of information that discourages the black man from taking a daily healthy dose of the sun will continue to impact negatively on his prostate health and results in poor disease outcome. The situation we have at hand now is that both fatal prostate cancer and Vitamin D deficiency are co-occurring in the black population. This requires urgent attention by directing serious enlightenment and advocacy in educating the Nigerian populace.

There are many sources of Vitamin D, ranging from dietary to pharmaceutical, but the sun is freely available for every man to utilise and maximise its benefit for a healthy prostate. There are, however, some important things to note about sun and Vitamin D generation. The amount of UV β radiation varies by location, not all the day long sun exposure is good for Vitamin D generation and the ability of skin to generate Vitamin D reduces with age. One way that an average man can take adequate advantage of the sun to get Vitamin D is by using mobile technology. There are mobile apps, like dminder, that use information like your age, location, clothing and skin tone to advice you daily on the best time and duration to get adequate Vitamin D from the sun without getting hurt. This type of apps also use your diet to predict whether you still require it.

Cancer is conquerable but it requires requisite knowledge and adequate personal actions like screening to detect and catch it early. Every man of 40 years old should get their baseline PSA as part of medical checkup and discuss with their doctors about prostate cancer. It important to know that it is your body and you have the responsibility to take care of it. We are made to live here and our ability to maintain a healthy lifestyle and balance with nature together with its resources will determine our survival.

Rotimi (PhD), is a biochemistry lecturer at Covenant University

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  • Marc Sorenson

    Excellent article. Sun exposure is absolutely essential for dark-skinned people of all kinds, and in fact dramatic reductions of prostate-cancer risk is achieved by sun exposure in all races. In addition, habitual sun exposure is associated with a reduced risk of most major diseases, including melanoma. Here are a few additional facts about the health benefits of sun exposure:

    •A 20-year Swedish study shows that sun avoidance is as bad for the health as cigarette smoking.

    •A Spanish study shows that women who seek the sun have one-eleventh the hip fracture risk as those who avoid sun.

    •Men who work outdoors have half the risk of melanoma as those who work indoors.

    •Women who totally avoid the sun have 10-times the risk of breast cancer as those who embrace the sun.

    •Women who sunbathe regularly have half the risk of death during a 20-year period compared to those who stay indoors.

    •Sun exposure increases nitric oxide production, which leads to a decrease in heart attack risk.

    •Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, is essential to human survival, and sun exposure is the only natural way to obtain it. Sunbathing can produce up to 20,000 units of vitamin D in 20 minutes of whole-body exposure.

    •Sun exposure dramatically improves mood through the production of serotonin and endorphin.

    •Beyond vitamin D, sun exposure also stimulates the production of endorphin, nitric oxide and BDNF, all of which are vital to human health.

    For references and articles,

  • Ayo Faleti

    This is a fantastic article.
    White folks are adapted to the low intensity sunlight in temperate regions (a form of evolutionary adaptation). Melanin is a natural sunscreen – meaning that black folks living in temperate regions get very limited Vitamin D and have to proactively supplement with oral dosage.
    Vitamin D deficiency is a significant positive contributor to the poor health outcomes of black folks, in comparison to white folks, especially as regards many chronic illnesses – cancers, diabetes etc.
    These are the questions our universities in Africa should be helping the world to answer. Black folks must wake up these responsibilities.

  • verban

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